Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Gut Microbiota - the latest research


Is your cardiovascular fitness related to your gut microbiome?

In a recent human cross-sectional study (39 subjects; diet, age and body-mass controlled), VO2peak 

(cardiovascular fitness) was associated with greater production of butyrate and gut microbial diversity 
(1). Butyrate helps to regulate sodium, water absorption and the absorption of calcium and other 
minerals, which is important for endurance exercise (2). In a study of 12 breast cancer survivors (3), 
gut microbiota diversity was associated with changes in cardiovascular fitness, fatigue and anxiety;
 participants with greater diversity had better fitness, less fatigue and anxiety. In a study on mice (4), 
swimming time (endurance) was longer in mice with a more diverse gut microbiota.

With this research in mind, and with cardiovascular fitness being one of the biggest predictors for 
chronic disease risk and all cause mortality; it's important to know how can we get more butyrate
 into our diet, and thus achieve a more diverse gut microbiota. Read more about prebiotics and


Prebiotics - improving your gut microbiome 

Prebiotics are a form of fibre; a non-digestible carbohydrate that pass through the gastrointestinal 
tract and stimulates the growth and acidity of good bacteria in the large intestines (1,2,3). This good 
bacteria is responsible for many health outcomes (1,2,3). For example, 95% of serotonin is produced
 within the gut - an unhealthy gut can lead to an unhappy mind (4).

Prebiotics may also assist with (3):

Prebiotics include inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and
resistant starch (e.g. unripe bananas, pre-cooked cold potatoes, cold pasta, cold legumes).
A list of other foods can be found in the table below (1):
 
Vegetables
 
Jerusalem artichokes, chicory, garlic, onion, leek, shallots, spring onion, asparagus, beetroot, fennel bulb, green peas, snow peas, sweetcorn, savoy cabbage
 
Legumes
 
Chickpeas, lentils, red kidney beans, baked beans, soybeans
 
Fruit
 
Custard apples, nectarines, white peaches, persimmon, tamarillo, watermelon, rambutan, grapefruit, pomegranate.  Dried fruit (eg. dates, figs)
 
Bread / cereals / snacks
 
Barley, rye bread, rye crackers, pasta, gnocchi, couscous, wheat bran, wheat bread, oats
 
Nuts and seeds
 
Cashews, pistachio nuts, psyllium
 
Other
 
Human breast milk, acacia fibre (sap from Acacia Senegal tree)
 
 
How do these prebiotics work? Good bacteria “feed” on prebiotics, such as resistant starch and 
produce short chain fatty acids; the most significant of which are acetate, butyrate,and propionate.  
Of these three short chain fatty acids (SCFA), butyrate is extremely beneficial effects on the
colon and overall health (2). Butyrate helps to keep toxins in the gut and out of the blood stream. 
As a result, this helps to decrease inflammation, obesity and a myriad of other chronic diseases (2).
 As discussed in the
Exercise is Medicine section, butyrate is also associated with cardiovascular fitness.

So, what are you waiting for? Get some more prebiotics and resistant starch foods into
you. Five grams/day is recommended for prebiotics (out of a total of 25 gram per day of fibre for
females and 30 grams for males). There are prebiotic supplementations to assist, such as: Prebitoin (3)

If you're wanting to learn more about this, a good starting point is the book: 'Gut' by Giulia Enders (4).

Further reading and sources of the above information: 
  1. http://www.med.monash.edu.au/cecs/gastro/prebiotic/faq/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/
  3. https://www.prebiotin.com/about-us/
  4. http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/gut-review-our-underrated-digestive-system-
    and-its-ultimate-role-as-a-disposal-unit-20150704-gi4czk.html




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